Weekly Asset Class Returns
Global Manufacturing PMIs Continued Higher in September
COVID-19 Growth in Confirmed Cases
U.S. Economic Data Stalls, Mixed Readings in September
U.S. Unemployment Claims & Equity Drawdowns
Global Inflation Trends
U.S. Inflation Rebounds
Policymaker vs. Market Rate Expectations
Fed Balance Sheet
Global Earnings Calendar
S&P 500 Sales & Earnings Growth by Sector
S&P 500 & Implied Volatility
Volatility is a Feature of the Stock Market, Not a Bug
U.S. Equity Valuations Are Still Stretched Despite Pullback
Cyclically-Adjusted P/E (CAPE) Multiples by Country
Sentiment Lower After Four Consecutive Weeks of Market Declines
The Crash & Comeback in Vice/Sin Stocks vs. ESG
Fixed Income & Credit Summary
Treasury Yield Curve
Credit Spreads are Back Near Long-Term Median
Higher Quality Credit Spreads Widened Modestly in September
Global Negative Yielding Debt
High Yield Muni Spread to Investment Grade Back to Average
High Yield Spreads Through the COVID-19 Crisis
Real Assets Summary
Real Assets Summary
Crude Inventories Remain Elevated, Gasoline Inventories Near 5-Year Average
Broad Commodities Remain Below Historical Averages, Most Metals Above
Closed-End Fund Discounts Widened to More than 1 Std. Dev
Closed-End Fund Discounts
Asset Class Yield Summary
U.S. Dollar Index
Futures Spec Positioning
Copper/Gold Ratio vs. Treasury Yields
Expected Returns for a 60/40 Remain Low
The Case for a Structural Change to Strategic 60/40 Allocations
S&P 500 Index: Widely regarded as the best single gauge of the U.S. equities market. The index includes a representative sample of 500 leading companies in leading industries of the U.S. economy. The S&P 500 Index focuses on the largecap segment of the market; however, since it includes a significant portion of the total value of the market, it also represents the market.
MSCI ACWI: (ACWI: All Country World Index) a free float-adjusted market capitalization weighted index that is designed to measure the equity market performance of developed and emerging markets.
MSCI EAFE Index: (EAFE: Europe, Australasia, Far East) a free float-adjusted market capitalization index that is designed to measure the equity market performance of developed markets, excluding the US & Canada.
MSCI EAFE Small Cap Index: (EAFE: Europe, Australasia, Far East) a free float adjusted market capitalization index that is designed to measure the small cap equity market performance of developed markets, excluding the US & Canada.
MSCI EM Index: A free float-adjusted market capitalization index that is designed to measure equity market performance in the global emerging markets.
Russell 1000 Index: Measures the performance of the 1,000 largest companies in the Russell 3000.
Russell 2000 Index: Measures the performance of the 2,000 smallest companies in the Russell 3000 Index.
Russell 3000 Index: Measures the performance of the 3,000 largest U.S. companies based on total market capitalization.
Cambridge Associates U.S. Global Buyout and Growth Index: Based on data compiled from 1,768 global (U.S. & ex – U.S.) buyout and growth equity funds, including fully liquidated partnerships, formed between 1986 and 2013.
Cambridge Associates Private Equity Index: Based on data compiled from 1,468 U.S. private equity funds (buyout, growth equity, private equity energy and subordinated capital funds), including fully liquidated partnerships, formed between 1986 and 2017.
Cambridge Associates Venture Capital Index: Based on data compiled from 1,807 US venture capital funds (1,161 early stage, 210 late & expansion stage, and 436 multi-stage funds), including fully liquidated partnerships, formed between 1981 and 2018.
Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index: A broad-based flagship benchmark that measures the investment grade, US dollar-denominated, fixed rate taxable bond market. The index includes Treasuries, government-related and corporate securities, MBS (agency fixed-rate pass-throughs), ABS and CMBS (agency and non-agency).
Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Index: A multi-currency measure of global investment grade debt from twenty-four local currency markets. This benchmark includes treasury, government-related, corporate and securitized fixed-rate bonds from both developed and emerging markets issuers.
Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate ex-USD Index: A multi-currency measure of investment grade debt from 24 local currency markets. This benchmark includes treasury, government-related, corporate and securitized fixed-rate bonds from both developed and emerging markets issuers. Bonds issued in USD are excluded.
Bloomberg Barclays Municipal Index: Consists of a broad selection of investment- grade general obligation and revenue bonds of maturities ranging from one year to 30 years. It is an unmanaged index representative of the tax exempt bond market.
Bloomberg Barclays US High Yield Index: Covers the universe of fixed rate, noninvestment grade debt. Eurobonds and debt issues from countries designated as emerging markets (sovereign rating of Baa1/BBB+/BBB+ and below using the middle of Moody’s, S&P, and Fitch) are excluded, but Canadian and global bonds (SEC registered) of issuers in non-EMG countries are included.
Bloomberg Barclays 1-3 Month U.S. Treasury Bill Index: Includes all publicly issued zero-coupon US Treasury Bills that have a remaining maturity of less than 3 months and more than 1 month, are rated investment grade, and have $250 million or more of outstanding face value. In addition, the securities must be denominated in U.S. dollars and must be fixed rate and non-convertible.
J.P. Morgan Emerging Market Bond Global Index (EMBI): Includes U.S. dollar denominated Brady bonds, Eurobonds, traded loans and local market debt instruments issued by sovereign and quasi-sovereign entities.
Alerian MLP Index: A composite of the 50 most prominent energy Master Limited Partnerships (MLPs) that provides investors with an unbiased, comprehensive benchmark for the asset class.
Bloomberg Commodity Index: Composed of futures contracts on physical commodities and represents twenty two separate commodities traded on U.S. exchanges, with the exception of aluminum, nickel, and zinc.
S&P Global Ex-U.S. Property Index: Measures the investable universe of publicly traded property companies domiciled in developed and emerging markets excluding the U.S. The companies included are engaged in real estate related activities such as property ownership, management, development, rental and investment.
MSCI US REIT Index: A free float-adjusted market capitalization weighted index that is comprised of equity Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). The index is based on the MSCI USA Investable Market Index (IMI), its parent index, which captures the large, mid and small cap segments of the USA market. With 150 constituents, it represents about 99% of the US REIT universe and securities are classified under the Equity REITs Industry (under the Real Estate Sector) according to the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS®), have core real estate exposure (i.e., only selected Specialized REITs are eligible) and carry REIT tax status.
Cambridge Associates Private Real Estate Index: Based on data compiled from 1,001 real estate funds (including opportunistic and value-added real estate funds), including fully liquidated partnerships, formed between 1986 and 2017.
S&P Global Infrastructure Index: Designed to track 75 companies from around the world chosen to represent the listed infrastructure industry while maintaining liquidity and tradability. To create diversified exposure, the index includes three distinct infrastructure clusters: energy, transportation, and utilities.
LBMA Gold Price Index: The global benchmark prices for unallocated gold and silver delivered in London. ICE Benchmark Administration Limited (IBA) operates electronic auctions for spot, unallocated London gold and silver, providing a market-based platform for buyers and sellers to trade. The auctions are run at 10:30am and 3:00pm London time for gold and at 12:00pm London time for silver. The final auction prices are published to the market as the LBMA Gold Price AM, the LBMA Gold Price PM and the LBMA Silver Price benchmarks, respectively. The price formation for each auction is in US Dollars.
HFRI Indices: Equally weighted performance indexes, utilized by numerous hedge fund managers as a benchmark for their own hedge funds. The HFRI are broken down into 4 main strategies, each with multiple sub strategies. All single manager HFRI Index constituents are included in the HFRI Fund Weighted Composite, which accounts for over 2200 funds listed on the internal HFR Database.
HFRI Equity Hedge Index: Investment Managers who maintain positions both long and short in primarily equity and equity derivative securities. EH managers would typically maintain at least 50% exposure to, and may in some cases be entirely invested in, equities, both long and short.
HFRI Event Driven Index: Investment Managers who maintain positions in companies currently or prospectively involved in corporate transactions of a wide variety including but not limited to mergers, restructurings, financial distress, tender offers, shareholder buybacks, debt exchanges, security issuance or other capital structure adjustments.
HFRI Relative Value Index: Investment Managers who maintain positions in which the investment thesis is predicated on realization of a valuation discrepancy in the relationship between multiple securities.
HFRI Credit Index: A composite index of strategies trading primarily in credit markets. It is an aggregation of following 7 HFRI sub-strategy indices. HFRI ED: Credit Arbitrage Index, HFRI ED: Distressed/Restructuring Index, HFRI ED: MultiStrategy Index, HFRI RV: Fixed Income-Asset Backed Index, HFRI RV: Fixed Income-Convertible Arbitrage Index, HFRI RV: Fixed Income-Corporate Index, and HFRI RV: Multi-Strategy Index.
HFRX Indices: Equally weighted index across all sub strategy and regional indices. Hedge Fund Research, Inc. (HFR) utilizes a UCITSIII compliant methodology to construct the HFRX Hedge Fund Indices. The methodology is based on defined and predetermined rules and objective criteria to select and rebalance components to maximize representation of the Hedge Fund Universe.
HFRX Short Bias Index: Short-Biased strategies employ analytical techniques in which the investment thesis is predicated on assessment of the valuation characteristics on the underlying companies with the goal of identifying overvalued companies. Short Biased strategies may vary the investment level or the level of short exposure over market cycles, but the primary distinguishing characteristic is that the manager maintains consistent short exposure and expects to outperform traditional equity managers in declining equity markets.
HFRX Macro/CTA Index: Macro strategy managers trade a broad range of strategies in which the investment process is predicated on movements in underlying economic variables and the impact these have on equity, fixed income, hard currency and commodity markets. Managers employ a variety of techniques, both discretionary and systematic analysis, combinations of top down and bottom up theses, quantitative and fundamental approaches and long and short-term holding periods.
HFRX Equity Hedge Index: Equity Hedge strategies maintain positions both long and short in primarily equity and equity derivative securities. A wide variety of strategies can range broadly in terms of levels of net exposure, leverage employed, holding period, concentrations of market capitalizations and valuation ranges of typical portfolios. Equity Hedge managers would typically maintain at least 50% and may in some cases be substantially entirely invested in equities, both long and short.
ASSET CLASS DEFINITIONS
Asset class performance was measured using the following benchmarks unless stated otherwise:
U.S. Large Cap Stocks: S&P 500 TR Index
U.S. Small & Micro Cap Stocks: Russell 2000 TR Index
Intl Dev Large Cap Stocks: MSCI EAFE GR Index
Emerging & Frontier Market Stocks: MSCI Emerging Markets GR Index
U.S. Interm-Term Muni Bonds: Bloomberg Barclays 1-10 (1-12 Yr) Muni Bond TR Index
U.S. Interm-Term Bonds: Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond TR Index
U.S. High Yield Bonds: Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Corporate High Yield TR Index
U.S. Bank Loans: S&P/LSTA U.S. Leveraged Loan Index
Intl Developed Bonds: Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate ex-U.S. Index
Emerging & Frontier Market Bonds: JPMorgan EMBI Global Diversified TR Index
U.S. REITs: MSCI U.S. REIT GR Index
Ex U.S. Real Estate Securities: S&P Global Ex-U.S. Property TR Index
Commodity Futures: Bloomberg Commodity TR Index
Midstream Energy: Alerian MLP TR Index
Gold: LBMA Gold Price
U.S. 60/40: 60% S&P 500 TR Index 40% Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond TR Index
Global 60/40: 60% MSCI ACWI GR Index 40% Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Bond TR Index
Alpha: The excess return generated by an active manager or fund relative to its benchmark.
Bear Market: A bear market is a condition in which securities prices fall and widespread pessimism causes the stock market’s downward spiral to be self sustaining. Although figures vary, a downturn of 20 percent or more from a peak in multiple broad market indexes, such as the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) or Standard & Poor’s 500 Index (S&P 500), over a two-month period is considered an entry into a bear market.
Bull Market: A bull market is the condition of a financial market of a group of securities in which prices are rising or are expected to rise. The term “bull market” is most often used to refer to the stock market but can be applied to anything that is traded, such as bonds, real estate, currencies and commodities. Because prices of securities rise and fall essentially continuously during trading, the term “bull market” is typically reserved for extended periods in which a large portion of security prices are rising.
Credit Spread: A credit spread is the difference in yield between a US Treasury bond and a debt security with the same maturity but of lesser quality.
Default Rate: The default rate is most commonly referred to as the percentage of loans that have been charged off after a prolonged period of missed payments.
Excess Returns: A security’s return minus the return from another security in the same time period. Full Employment: The condition in which virtually all who are able and willing to work are employed.
Full Employment: The condition in which virtually all who are able and willing to work are employed.
Implied Volatility: The estimated volatility of a security’s price. In general, implied volatility increases when the market is bearish and decreases when the market is bullish. This is due to the common belief that bearish markets are more risky than bullish markets.
Large Cap: Sometimes “big cap”, refers to a company with a market capitalization value of more than $10 billion. Large cap is a shortened version of the term “large market capitalization.” Market capitalization is calculated by multiplying the number of a company’s shares outstanding by its stock price per share.
Long/Short Equity: Long-short portfolios hold sizeable stakes in both long and short positions in equities and related derivatives. Some funds that fall into this category will shift their exposure to long and short positions depending on their macro outlook or the opportunities they uncover through bottom-up research. Some funds may simply hedge long stock positions through exchange traded funds or derivatives. At least 75% of the assets are in equity securities or derivatives.
Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio: The price-earnings ratio (P/E Ratio) is the ratio for valuing a company that measures its current share price relative to its per-share earnings. The price-earnings ratio can be calculated as: Market Value per Share/Earnings per Share.
Price-to-Book (P/B) Ratio: The price-to-book ratio (P/B Ratio) is a ratio used to compare a stock’s market value to its book value. It is calculated by dividing the current closing price of the stock by the latest quarter’s book value per share. Also known as the “price-equity ratio.
Sharpe Ratio: The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. It also known as the Reward-to-volatility Ratio.
Shiller P/E: Valuation measure that takes into consideration the price and cyclically adjusted earnings of a security, adjusted for inflation.
Small Cap: Small cap stocks are generally defined as the stock of publicly traded companies that have a market capitalization ranging from $300 million to about $2 billion. Small cap stock companies often have a high stock price. It’s the number of available shares that make them “small.”
Spread Changes: Changes in the spread between Treasury securities and non Treasury securities that are identical in all respects except for quality rating.
Standard Deviation: Measures the historical dispersion of a security, fund or index around an average. Investors use standard deviation to measure expected risk or volatility, and a higher standard deviation means the security has tended to show higher volatility or price swings in the past.
Yield: The income produced by an investment, typically calculated as the interest received annually divided by the investment’s price.
Yield-to-Duration: A ratio used in fixed income investing to compare the amount of return (yield to maturity) an investor is receiving per unit of duration or interest rate risk.
Z-score: A Z-score is a numerical measurement of a value’s relationship to the mean in a group of values. A Z-score of 0 represents the score as identical to the mean score. Positive and negative scores reflect the number of standard deviations that the score is either above or below the mean, respectively.